Tuesday, August 2, 2016
Men's health is concerned with identifying,preventing, and treating conditions that are most common or specific to men." 1. "The sex ratio for the entire world population is 101 males to 100 females. However, in developed countries, there are more females than males." 2. (Sex Differences in Humans-Wikipedia) Men live, on average, seven years less than women; life expectancy in the United States is 72 years for men and 79 years for women." 3. "Mens life expectancy is seven(7) years shorter than women's [National Center for Health Statistics--males 72.3 years vs females 79 years] yet receive only 35% of government expenditures for health care and medical costs." (Twenty Four Indicators of Systemic Discrimination Against Men", http://www.jtest28.com/discrimination.html) 4. "The reasons for this discrepancy are not completely understood. Men may have some genetic predisposition for lower life expectancy, as women tend to outlive men in most areas throughout the world. But men,also, have different lifestyle patterns that increase the wear and tear on their bodies. Studies have shown that men tend to drink and smoke more than women, men obtain medical care less frequently than women; and, men, generally, have more stressful habits. It is clear to health professionals that men can benefit from increased knowledge of male medical issues and by understanding how lifestyle choices impact health." 5. "Men's health is significantly neglected compared to women's health." 6. "All male fitness and well being indicators are in a drastic decline." 7. "Though all aspects of male health and well being are in decline, there is no Council On Men and Boys nor a Federal Office On Mens Health while women now have at least seven the last time if checked." 8. "Men's health is significantly neglected compared to women's health. In the 1920s men died one year younger than women (the rate women died in childbirth was almost equal to the rate men died in war). Today, men die 5 years younger than women and have higher death rates for all 10 leading causes of death. Men also account for about 85% of homeless adults, 90% of prisoners, 65% of dropouts, 80% of suicide deaths, and 92% of occupational deaths. (Warren Farrell, Ph.D., "The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex." ------ Despite these figures, there is still no federal office of men's health though there are about 7 federal offices of women's health.Most states and local governments have offices of women's health but not men's health (only Georgia has an office of men's health).The government has long spent multiple times more on breast cancer than prostate cancer research,despite nearly equal mortality rates." 9. "Male suicide has skyrocketed in the last 30 years, especially among young men and divorced men.Men are also more likely than women to have mental disabilities but less likely than women to receive treatment, especially in prisons." 10. "Men's suicide rate is 4.6 times higher than women's. [Dept. Health Human Services-26,710 males vs. 5,700 females]" 11. "Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis, for religious and medical reasons, performed on 60% of newborn males in the United States. Increasing controversy surrounds this procedure. Advocates of circumcision claim it prevents infections (called balanitis) on the head of the penis and reduces chances of penile cancer. Opponents of circumcision claim that the outdated procedure affords no medical benefits, that it causes unnecessary pain for infants, and that the lack of a fore-skin may reduce sexual pleasure and performance." 12. "A growing body of evidence is pointing toward the deleterious impact of masculinity (and hegeonic masculinity in particular) on men's health seeking behavior. American men make 134.5 million fewer physician visits than American women each year. In fact, men make only 40.8% of all physician visits, that is, if women's visits for pregnancy childbirth and associate obstetrical and gynecological visits are included. A quarter of the men who are 45 to 60 do not have a personal physician. Many men should go to annual heart checkups with physicians but do not, increasing their risk of death from heart disease. Men between the ages of 25 and 65 are four times more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than women. Men are more likely to be diagnosed in a later stage of terminal illness because of their reluctance to go to the doctor. Reasons men give for not having annual physicals and not visiting their physician include fear, denial, embarrassment, a dislike of situations out of their control, or not worth the time or cost. " 13. "Today,men die 5 years younger than women and have higher death rates for all 10 leading causes of death." 14. "Life Expectancy: Men's life expectancy is seven (7) years shorter than women's [ National Center for health Statistics--males 72.3 yrs vs females 79 years] yet receive only 35% of government expenditures for health care and medical costs." 15. "More than four times as many men as women commit suicide. More men that women die from heart disease, cancerous cysts, cerebrovascular diseases, accidents and adverse effects, obstructive lung disease, pneumonia and influenza, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, hardening of the arteries, inflammation of the kidneys, blood infections, deaths around the time of birth and AIDS, For every woman that dies from AIDS, 9.1 men die." 16. "Men account for more than 95% of workplace fatalities." 17. "According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the 10 leading causes of death for men in the United States are: 1. Heart Disease 2. Cancer 3. Stroke 4. Accidents 5. Lung Disease (including emphysema and chronic bronchitis) 6. Pneumonia 7. Diabetes 8. Suicide 9. Liver Disease 10. Homicides Men also suffer regularly from conditions as diverse as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), mental illness, arthritis, urinary tract infections, athletic injuries, hair and scalp problems, and digestive disorders. The field of men's health strives to reduce the risks and incidence of men's conditions by researching preventative practices, designing testing procedures for early detection, and recommending specialized courses of treatment." 18. The following includes a discussion of those medical conditions that are, relatively speaking, specific for men only. PREVENTION "Preventative practices for men's health emphasize diet, exercise, and stress management, as well as the elimination of risky behaviors like smoking and excessive drinking. Four of the leading causes of death for American men are related to diet-heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes. In addition, men are more likely than women to suffer from diet-related conditions including high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and obesity, all of which increase the risk of certain diseases and premature death. For American men, dietary problems are usually not the result of getting too little nourishment but of eating too much fat, sugar,and overall calories. The dietary change most likely to improve the health of males is reduced intake of fats, particularly cholesterol and saturated fats. Cholesterol and and saturated fats are found mainly in meat and dairy products. Calories from from fat should amount to no more than 30% of total daily calories. Eating adequate protein is, generally, not a problem for American men, so replacing some dairy and meat consumption with high fiber vegetable proteins such as beans and soy would be beneficial. Complex carbohydrates should provide the bulk of daily calories, such as those from whole grains and legumes, while sugar intake should be significantly reduced, such as in soft drinks, deserts and processed foods. Increasing dietary fiber is recommended by eating plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes. Other principles of a healthy diet are avoiding artificial and processed foods, eating food that is as fresh and natural as possible, drinking plenty of water, and avoiding hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oils, which contain unhealthy substances called trans-fatty acids. Overeating should be avoided as should snacking between meals Alcohol intake should be limited to one or two glasses per day." 19. Male Urinary Tract Problems "The urinary system includes the kidneys and bladder, the ureters between the kidneys and the bladder,and the urethra, the tube through which urine flows from the bladder. Symptoms of urinary tract problems include frequent urination, weak urination, blood in the urine, excessive urination at night, painful or burning urination, or incontinence (involuntary loss of urine). Urethritis is infection of the urethra, which is a major symptom of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) is another urinary tract problem accounting for nearly one out of 100 hospital admissions in the United States. Eighty percent of kidney stone patients are men. About 12% of American men will develop kidney stones during their lifetimes. Kidney stones cause extreme pain when they move from the kidneys into the ureters. Ten percent of kidney stone cases require surgery. The best prevention for kidney stones in drinking plenty of fluids daily." 20. Heart Disease "Heart disease is the major cause of death among men.------ Heart disease can take take several forms but the most prevalent is coronary heart disease, in which the blood vessels that supply the heart with oxygen become blocked and the heart becomes increasingly stressed.---- Arteriosclerosis, a major factor, is the hardening of the arteries due to the accumulation of fats and other substances.---- Hypertension, of high blood pressure also poses major risks for both heart disease and stroke.---- Angina pectoris is the chest pain associated with the early stages of heart disease.---- When the blockage of blood supply to the heart becomes severe, a myocardia infarction (heart attack) may occur, which can be fatal. The main symptom of angina pectoris is sharp pain on the left side of the chest that may radiate throughout the upper body. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue, and swelling of the legs and ankles. Angina may be triggered by physical or emotional stress and lasts up to 30 minutes. Heart attacks have similar symptoms but with longer and more intense pain in the chest and upper body and may be accompanied by cold sweats and vomiting. The American Heart Association lists the main risk factors for heart disease as being male, old age, having a family history of the disease, smoking, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, alcoholism, obesity, physical inactivity, and stress. Clearly, lifestyle habits such as diet, exercise and stress control play major roles in the development and prevention of heart disease in men." 21. The Male Reproductive System "The male reproductive system includes the penis, testicles, scrotum, prostate and other organs. Problems include orchitis, or infection of the testicles, and hydrocele, the build up of fluid on the testicles. Epididymitis is inflammation of the tube that transports sperm from the testicles, and can cause severe pain, swelling, and fever. A varicocele is a group of varicose veins in the scrotum that can cause swelling and damage sperm. Peyronie's disease is the abnormal curvature of the penis caused by accumulated scar tissue. Testicular torsion is considered a medical emergency, when a testicle becomes twisted and blood supply is cut off. This condition can lead to permanent damage if not treated quickly. It is most common in males between that ages of 12 and 18. Prostatitis is infection or inflammation of the prostate gland. Sexually transmitted diseases include genital warts, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, hepatitis and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). HIV is the leading cause for death for American men between the ages of 25 and 45. Symptoms of STDs include discharge of fluid from the penis, painful urination,sores, lesions, itching, or rashes in the genital area and swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin. Prevention of STDs begins with safe sexual behavior: wearing condoms, limiting the number of sexual partners, not mixing sexual encounters with alcohol, and avoiding sexual contact with infected people, prostitutes and intravenous drug users. Men who engage in risky behaviors should have frequent HIV tests and medical examinations." 22. Male Sexual Health "Erectile dysfunction (ED), also called impotence, is a man's inability to maintain an erection for sexual intercourse. It is estimated that half of all men over 40 experience ED occasionally and 20 million American men are chronic suffers, particularly older men as ED increases with age. Up to 80% of ED is caused by physical problems, while 20% of cases are psychogenic, or psychological in origin. Causes of ED include hormonal problems, injuries, nerve damage, diseases, infections, diabetes, stress, depression, anxiety, drug abuse and interactions with prescription drugs. A self-test men can perform to determine whether ED is physical or psychological is the stamp test, or nocturnal penile tumescence test. Physically healthy men experience several prolonged erections during sleep. The stamp test is done by attaching a strip of stamps around the penis at bedtime. If the stamps are torn in the morning, it generally indicates that nocturnal (nightly) erections have occurred and thus ED is not physiological. Men with ED should see urologists for further diagnosis and discussion of the several treatment options available including drugs, hormone injections and surgical repair or implants." 23. "Infertility occurs when men lack an adequate supply of sperm to cause pregnancy. A World Health Organization project found that in about 20% of infertile couples, the problem was due to the man, while in another 27% of couples both partners had infertility problems. Injuries, birth defects, infections, environmental pollutants, chronic stress, drug abuse and hormonal problems may account for male infertility, while one in four cases has no apparent cause and is termed idiopathic infertility. Declining sperm counts have been observed in industrialized countries; and, possible explanations for this decrease are as diverse as increased environmental pollutants to the use of plastic diapers, which a German study claims damages infant testicles by keeping them in excess heat. Male infertility can be diagnosed by sperm analysis, blood tests and radiographic scans of the testicles and other tests." 24. A more complete discussion of the decline in both the quality and quantity of sperm in men is outlined in Chapter 6 of this book entitled "Masculinity in Decline." "Other types of sexual dysfunction include premature ejaculation, in which men cannot sustain intercourse long enough to bring their partners to a climax, and retarded ejaculation (also called male orgasmic disorder) when male orgasm becomes difficult. Some men have periods of inadequate sexual desire (hypoactive sexual desire disorder), while sexual aversion disorder (SAD) is fear and repulsion of sexual activity. Dyspareunia is painful intercourse, and should be reported to physicians as it may indicated STDs or infections. In addition to medical care, sexual dysfunction may be treated by sexual therapy or psychotherapy depending on its causes." 25. "Vasectomies, a form of male birth control, are surgical operations that sever the tubes that transport sperm from the testicles. Vasectomies can be reversed but ten percent of men become infertile due to the surgery. Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis for religious and medical reasons performed on 60% of newborn males in he United States. Increasing controversy surrounds this procedure. Advocates of circumcision claim it prevents infections (called balanitis) on the head of the penis and reduces chances of penile cancer. Opponents of circumcision claim that the outdated procedure affords no medical benefits, that it causes unnecessary pain for infants, and that the lack of a fore-skin may reduce sexual pleasure and performance. " 26. Illness and Injury "Certain diseases and conditions are clearly sex related in that they are caused by the same chromosomes that regulate sex differentiation. Some conditions are X-linked recessive, in that the gene is carried on the X chromosome. Genetic females (XX) will show symptoms of the disease only if both their X chromosomes are defective with a similar deficiency. Whereas, genetic males (XY) will show symptoms of the disease if their only X chromosome is defective. (A woman may carry such a disease on one X chromosome but not show symptoms if the other X chromosome works sufficiently.) For this reason, such conditions are far more common in males than in females. X-linked recessive disorders include: 1. Red-green color blindness 2. Haemophilia A ( factor VIII) 3. Haemophilia B (factor IX) 4. Duchenne muscular dystrophy 5. Becker muscular dystrophy 6. Non-specific X-linked mental retardation. X-linked dominant disorders include: 1. Xg blood group 2. Vitamin D resistant rickets 3. Rett's syndrome 4. Fragile X syndrome There are diseases that are caused by a defective Y chromosome or of a defective number of them." 27. Differences not linked to sex chromosomes: "The World Health Organization (WHO) has produced a number of reports on gender and health. The following trends are shown: 1. Overall rates of mental illness are similar for men and women. There is no significant gender difference in rates of schizophrenia and bipolar depression. Women are more likely to suffer from unipolar depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Men are more likely to suffer from alcoholism, antisocial personality disorder and developmental psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and Tourette syndrome. 2. Women are more likely to suffer from depression. This is biologically explained by the serotonin levels of men being 52% higher than in women. 3. While men are more likely to suffer from alcoholism, women are more prone to addiction. This is because estrogen boosts the release of dopamine in the brain regions important for regulating drug seeking behavior which makes women more vulnerable to dependence. (Sex Differences in Humans-Wikipedia) 4. The prevalence of schizophrenia is not significant between the sexes. However, there is a difference in the brain structures related to the same. Women naturally have a higher orbitofrontal-to-amygdala ratio (OAR) than men. However, this is not the case in schizophrenic women (lower OAR) which makes sense. Men with schizophrenia, however, have a higher orbitofrontal-to-amygdala ratio than that of healthy men, which does not make sense. However, the difference is found in the human brain nonetheless. 5. Before menopause, women are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular disease. However, after the age of 60, the risk for both men and women is the same. 6. Overall, men are more likely to suffer from cancer with much of this driven by lung cancer. In most countries, more men than women smoke, although this gap is narrowing, especially among young women. 7. Women are twice as likely to be blind as men. In developed countries, this may be linked to higher life expectancy and age-related conditions. In developing countries, women are less likely to get timely treatments for conditions that lead to blindness such as cataracts and trachoma. 8. Women are more likely to suffer from osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Infectious disease prevalence varies. This is largely due to culture and exposure factors. In particular,the WHO notes that: a. Worldwide, more men than women are infected with HIV. The exception is sub-Saharan Africa where more women than men are infected. b. Adult males are more likely to be diagnosed with tuberculosis. Some other sex-related health differences include: a. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries, especially in basketball, occur more often in women than in men. b. From conception to death, but particularly before adulthood, females are, generally, less vulnerable than males to developmental difficulties and chronic illnesses. This could be due to females having two x chromosomes instead of just one and/or due to the reduced exposure to testosterone." 28.
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