Friday, September 26, 2014

Masculinity in Decline

"Gary Cross, a Penn State University Historian, wonders: " Where have all the men gone?" His book, "Men to Boys: The Making of Modern Immaturity", argues that "the culture of the boy-men today is less a life stage than a lifestyle." " 1. "No wonder that Men of foreign countries routinely laugh at the effeminate nature of American Men who have been degraded out of fear, obedience, and the shame of being Men from our Women, who have made us feel guilty for just being men. Metrosexual Men have become de rigeur,and flagrant homosexuality and feminine behavior in heterosexual Men is welcome, nourished,safe, and politically correct in American society and in the eyes of the law. Manly behavior is not."2. "There has been a recent uptick of books, articles and research studies documenting an endocrinological (or hormone) decline in the general male population. Male infertility can be diagnosed by sperm analysis, blood tests and radiographic scans of the testicles and other tests. Recent analysis shows average testosterone levels receding in men of all ages. In addition, average sperm quality, quantity and even testicle size has seen a marked reduction. Although many theories are presented as to why this is happening, from endocrine disruptors to the feminist movement, to evolutionary biology, researchers ultimately concede that the reason is still unknown." 3. "For a healthy male, typical seminal fluid analysis values should be:  Volume: 2-6 ml Density: 20-200 million/ml Motility: greater than 60% motile  However, according to the ever-increasing literature on sperm counts, these "normal" values are steadily decreasing and only a minute proportion of males will have normal semen values in today's Western industrialized countries in the near future.  Not only are sperm counts decreasing, but also declining are the average sperm volumes which contain a greater proportion of deformed spermatozoa which have reduced motility's." 4. "Professor Niels Skakkebaeck, a Danish scientist, first alerted the world to the possibility of a substantial fall in male fertility levels in 1992. He did this by showing that sperm counts in healthy men appeared to have dropped by more than half in 50 years. Professor Skakkebaeck's work attracted worldwide publicity at first-and then ridicule. He and his team in the Department of Growth and Development in Copenhagen University had reviewed 61 international studies involving 14,947 men between 1938 and 1992. They found that the average sperm count had fallen from 113 million per milliliter in 1940 to 66 million in 1990. In addition, the definition of a "normal" sperm count fell from 60 million  per milliliter to 20 million in the same period. Critics who reanalysed the Danish data pointed out a fundamental flaw in the calculations which, they said, ruled out any significant decline. Subsequent studies have confirmed and strengthened Skakkebaeck's findings.  A survey of 1,350 sperm donors in Paris found a decline in sperm counts by around 2% each year over the past 23 years, with younger men having the poorest-quality semen.  In another another study at the University of Helsinki led by Jarkko Farajarinen, testicular tissued was examined at post-mortem from 528 middle-aged Finnish men who died suddenly in either 1981 or 1991. Among men who died in 1981, 56.4% had normal, healthy sperm production. By 1991, however, this figure had dropped dramatically to 26.9%.  The average weight of men's testes decreased over the decade, while the proportion of useless fibrous testicular tissue increased. Adamopoulos et al in Athens examined 23,850 men between 1977 to 1993 (17 years) and found similar results to Farajarinen. In Edinburgh a recent study by Irwin saw a 25% decrease in sperm over 20 years. The results are shown in table 1 below.  The worrying thing about this downward trend is that a sperm count less than 20 million sperms per ml is interpreted as being infertile.  If this downward trend of counts were to continue, then values less than this will be the average in the next millennium."  5.  Year    Average Sperms Count per ml  Table 1 (from reference 5.)  1950    100 million 1970     75 million 1990     50 million  A more recent American study confirms the decline in male sperm count. The following is the URL of a web page entitled: " Decline in Sperm Count and Mobility in Young Adult Men from 2003 to 2013; Observations from a U.S. Sperm Bank":  www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789272

No comments:

Post a Comment